Velda’s Tool List

NOTE: You don’t need every one of these tools to build this chair.  The mandatory tools are notes with an asterisk.

Froe and Froe Club —   If you must buy new I’d buy Lie-Nielsen’s or Lee-Valley’s but I like my old ones better.  A 4″  diameter club seems about right.

Splitting Wedges:  New wedges all seem to have big bevels at the edge that make it hard to start a split. A blacksmith can draw them to a point, or you can buy good ones used on Ebay.  Just make sure the taper of the wedge continues all the way to the point, without any secondary bevels.

*Drawknife — Barr Tools and Lie-Nielsen make nice ones, but I like old ones from Ebay.  None of the new ones has a thin enough blade to allow the drawknife to fit into tight curves such as the seat’s waist.  For that, it’s nice to have a blade that’s 3/16″ thick or so at the edge. My online class has lots of sharpening, purchasing and using info.

Spokeshave — I use metal spokeshaves like Stanley #151 and the curved-bottom Boggs Shave from Lie-Neilsen (no need for the flat-bottom – the curved bottom will work for everything). Wooden bodies shaves and other low-angle shaves  are superior for endgrain, but little else.

*Marking Gauge — The duller the better – a sharp one won’t leave a line on green wood. I buy used ones on Ebay.

*Try square — For the reaming operation, make sure it will stand upright; some tip over if the wood is worn. Heavy-bodied machinist squares are nice (less tipsy), but not necessary.

*T-Bevel — Get one that locks well, like a Stanley #18. The Japan knock-offs I’ve seen are junk, as are the plastic things at Home Depot.

Bevel Board — Handy for setting the T-Bevel. Highland Hardware has a nice cheap one. You can also make one yourself or use a large protractor.


*Bench Chisel — I like a 1″ chisel, the worse it looks, the better I like it. A 3/8″ is handy for rocker slots.

Gouges — Swiss Made is a nice brand.  For trimming leg tenons, use something beefy and of moderate sweep like a #3.

*Bit Brace & Auger Bits (or bradpoints and cordless drill) — We’ll use 3/8, 1/2, 5/8, 11/16 bits.  Read more info on my bit choices.  My online class about drill bits has info on choosing, sharpening and using auger bits.

Cordless Drill — I use this to some extent for assembly, especially stretcher mortices. School drills can have dead batteries (and I don’t have enough drills for 4 students), so you might want to bring your drill.

11/16″ Brad Point Bit: I use these for stretcher mortices, since an auger bit tends to tear at such a steep angle. I make them from twist bits (it’s amazingly easy). More info about making them.  Lee Valley’s bits are really nice and the point is long enough that you can make them work (it’s not as long as I’d like, but it’s longer than most brands).  You can watch me grind them on my online class.

18″ Auger Bit Extension — Used for stretcher and spindle mortices when boring without any power tools. Ebay has them cheap.

*Scrub Plane, Bench Plane — For flattening the seat.

*Sharpening stones and slips — I have some in my shop you are welcome to use.

Dividers —  Useful for measuring leg depths. I like old ones, such as the ones made by ps & w.

Dead blow — For assembly. I also really like split-head hammers. 

*Card Scraper — Learn to sharpen them here.

Adze — I rarely use one, unless I am carving hardwood seats.  You want one with a good shape and a good amount of weight. Jason Lonon makes good ones. The antique one I use has a long handle and I stand on the seat as I carve – it can really hog some wood off.  Good used ones are rare.  Beware of gutter adzes which won’t fit in a seat without modification, since they are incannel and have little curve front-to-back.

*Inshave/ScorpBarr’s inshaves are the best right out of the box (either one is fine) . The one made by Ray Iles is great, but you need to bend the handles up with a torch so they don’t hit the seat as you carve. Easy enough if you have a torch. Wrap the handles and the blade with wet towels so they don’t get too hot.  Good used ones do exist, but are rare.

Travisher — Get one from me, Claire Minahan or James Mursell, or make your own. I’ve never seen a good used one for sale.

Turning saw — The 18th century version of a bandsaw. You want a big one, 28″ or so.

Coping Saw for rocker slots

Extension folding rule — Useful (but not mandatory) for measuring stretcher lengths and what not. They are cheap on Ebay, and better than the new ones.

Pencils —  Schools often don’t have enough pencils, amazingly enough.

Safety Glasses — Imperative when using metal wedges and a metal sledge hammer. I have plenty of glasses in my shop, but yours may fit you better.

*Reamer — Needs to be 6-degree included angle to match my turnings. You can make one (, or buy one from me or Tim Manney.  I also sell blades for making your own and my online class goes through every step in detail.

Leg and Post tenons —  11/16″ & 1/2″ (tapered at 6 degree) Tenon Cutters  for legs, posts and arm stumps. Turning these on a lathe with a skew chisel is probably an even better option.

Spindle Tenons – 1/2″ Tenon Cutter for bottom of spindles.  Dowel plate for top of spindles

Stretcher Tenons – In my shop, I prefer using a turner’s gate for turning tenons (it makes it easy to remove the shoulders and the tenons are always aligned with the stretcher’s axis). My second favorite method is a dowel plate, which is cheap and low-tech.  For expediency, I use a 5/8 Veritas tenon cutter in large classes.

*Turning tools — I use a  1/2″ oval skew, 3/4″ roughing gouge and a parting tool. You can use a 1″ or larger skew (safer).

Lathe Calipers – Good used ones (Starrett, etc) are available on Ebay cheap.

1/4″ Morticing Chisel


1.5″ Sash Brush with synthetic bristles from any good hardware store.  Purdy is a good brand.

Milk Paint I use the Old Fashioned brand

Shellac Flakes I use the flakes sells.  Any kind of wiping varnish also works well.

Carnauba Wax  The only wax I have found that doesn’t leave white spots in oak pores when applied over shellac is a liquid wax sold by BioShield.

Instructions for making some of the bigger tools:

A nice shaving horse: Tim Manney has designed a simple shaving horse that works really well.

Free Workbench Plans: Curtis has free plans for his workbenches, which are similar to mine (mine are a little bigger and disassemble easily).

Kiln:  I have some blog posts about making a kiln.

Steam Box:  My blog has a series of posts about steam boxes.

Favorite books from my library:

The Chairmaker’s Notebook by Peter Galbert  is the most comprehensive book on Windsor chairmaking in print.

Understanding Wood by Bruce Hoadley is an indispensable reference about why wood behaves as it does.  Read chapters one, two and four if you read nothing else on chairmaking.

Turning Wood with Richard Raffan is a good general woodturning book for both spindle and faceplate work. Info on the skew is rather thin.

Understanding Wood Finishing by Bob Flexner demystifies the various kinds of finishes. He puts more faith in thick glossy finishes than I do, but the info is excellent.

The Perfect Edge by Ron Hock is an excellent book on sharpening. However, getting a usable edge is an easier task than the myriad lengthy books on the subject would have you think.

Nancy Goyne Evans has three excellent books on the history of American Windsors and Windsor chairmaking.

The Nature and Art of Workmanship by David Pye is a brilliant book of craft philosophy.  Why does a glossy finish on a rough board look bad?  What is the difference between hand and machine work?  This book tackles many such questions in a logical manner.

Roy Underhill’s TV show and first three books were what got me interested in this crazy profession. An antidote to all the technical books in the world, Roy’s black-and-white photos and whimsical writing are like a window into another time.